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    Parties and Elections in Europe            
 CONTENTS
 
Abstract
Parties and Elections in Europe provides a comprehensive database about the parliamentary elections in the European countries and autonomous subnational entities since 1945 and additional informations about the political parties, the electoral systems, the acting political leaders and the composition of governments. The parties are characterised according to their political orientation. The website also contains a calendar of upcoming parliamentary elections, news around the world of parties and links to parties and election authorities.
The independent and private website was established by
© 2006-2012 zentele.de in 1997. The editor began his comparative study of political parties, party systems, elections and constitutional laws in the late 1980s. Thereafter he studied law and history. Today he practices law in D√ľsseldorf, Germany.
Calendar Dates of upcoming parliamentary elections in Europe (2nd chambers).
News News around the world of parties in Europe (e.g. mergers, splits, renamings).
Countries
Current results of parliamentary elections (2nd chambers) in the European countries and autonomous subdivisions (federal states, autonomous regions and provinces) and additional informations about the acting political leaders, the composition of governments, the electoral law and the parties' websites. Past results since 1945 are stored in the archive. To achieve more clearness, less important details are left out of the figures. Parties that gained no seats or failed to pass a barrier are generally not listed.

The figures also show the parties' membership in pan-European parties (full, associate, observer). The below parties received official EU recognition in 2007:
  • European People's Party (EPP)
  • Party of European Socialists (PES)
  • European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party (ELDR)
  • European Green Party (EGP)
  • European Left (EL)
  • Alliance for Europe of the Nations (AEN)
  • European Free Alliance (EFA)
  • European Democratic Party (EDP)
  • Alliance of Independent Democrats in Europe (ADIE)
  • EUDemocrats (EUD)
The political parties are characterised according to their political orientation. The labels are based on literature, news, personal impressions, the parties' origins and self-assessments and their membership in international party organisations. The parties are classified conform these categories:
  • Social democracy: The social democratic parties are center-left parties rooted in the labour movement of the 19th century. This (today cross-class) parties advocate a democratic welfare state and a mixed economy that contains privately-owned and state-owned enterprises. They adhere to values as freedom, social justice, solidarity and equality of rights and opportunities.

  • Socialism: The (democratic-) socialist parties favour similar values, but are generally more radical. They resist the capitalist globalisation and intend to reorganise the socio-economic order through more public ownership and workers' control of the labour process. Most developed out of the New Left or eurocommunist parties. Usually they integrate different leftist currents.
         ¬∑ Eco-socialists combine democratic socialist, green and anti-globalisation policies.

  • Communism: Far-left communist parties have their origins in revolutionary factions within social democratic parties (splits after the October Revolution). They adhere a more or less strict Marxist-Leninist, Trotskyist or Maoist ideology. All currents intend to establish a classless society based on common ownership of the means of production and property in general.

  • Green politics: Most green parties were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements (New Left) that came up in the mid-1960s. They are ecological parties based on values as nonviolence, grassroots democracy, human/civil rights, feminism and social justice. A lot of them, especially in Western Europe, are part of the anti-globalisation movement.

  • Regionalism: Regionalist parties focus on the interests of a particular region. They intend to increase the region's influence. Their aim is usually a decentralisation of governance and autonomy or a greater degree of autonomy for the region.
         ¬∑ Separatists advocate a full political secession of a particular region and the formation of a new state.
         ¬∑ Ethnoregionalists aim to represent an ethnic or linguistic minority; they intend to increase the rights of this group.

  • Liberalism: The liberal parties are middle-class parties based on the tradition of political liberalism, a movement of the 19th century. The doctrine of liberalism stresses individual freedom and limited government as well as individual property rights, equality for all citizens under the law, the protection of civil liberties, secularism and a free market economy.
         ¬∑ Social liberals are more progressive, emphasise civil liberties and accept social market economies.
         ¬∑ Conservative liberals combine liberal policies with more traditional stances on social or ethical issues.

  • Centrism: Centrist parties are traditional parties which are in the centre of the political spectrum or which take a centrist position on the socio-economic left-right scale. The Scandinavian centrist parties in particular are post-agrarian parties that broadened their scope to topics as decentralisation, small business and environmental protection.

  • Christian democracy: The Christian social doctrine (basic principle: human dignity) is the inspiration of Christian democratic parties. This cross-class parties ideologically combine Christian ethical and socially conservative views with a social market model. They are very supportive of family values and adhere to principles as freedom, justice, solidarity and subsidiarity.

  • Conservatism: Originally parties of the upper-class, the conservatives today (in Europe) are mainly middle-class parties that favour traditional values as authority, religion, nation or national cultur. They usually seek to preserve the current status quo or to reform the society slowly. Over the time they adopted some liberal values, especially on economic issues.
         ¬∑ Liberal conservatives combine conservative policies with more liberal stances on social or ethical issues.
         ¬∑ National conservatives tend to Euroscepticism and concentrate on national interests and traditional social or ethical values.

  • Right-wing populism: The right-wing populist parties that appeared in the 1970s appeal to the fears and frustrations of the public. Their strategy rely on a combination of nationalism with a radical critique of the political institutions. They prefer strict immigration/ law-and-order polices, tend to Euroscepticism and often pretend liberal values, but on the whole they don't have a clear ideology.

  • Nationalism: The radical right nationalist parties strictly focus on nation, ethnic group or national culture. Usually they have strong reservations against foreign ethnic groups, cultures or specific countries. Most of them oppose the current liberal democracies and their values and tend to forms of authoritarianism. Normally they step outside the boundaries of the mainstream politics. 

  • Single-issue politics: The single-issue parties generally center on one essential political issue or a particular social group. Euroscepticism, unionism, agrarianism, pensioners interests or specific religious denominations are examples.
References: U. Ante, Wahlatlas Europa; W. T. Bauer, Rechtsextreme und rechtspopulistische Parteien in Europa, √ĖGPP 2008; J. Bayer, Rechtspopulismus und Rechtsextremismus in Ostmitteleuropa, √ĖZP 3/2002; R. Corbett / F. Jacobs / M. Shackleton, The European Parliament; H. Daalder / P. Mair, Western European Party Systems, Bristol 1983; A.J. Day / H.W. Degenhardt, Political parties of the world, Detroit 1980; G. Deinzer, Europ√§ische Parteien, Baden-Baden 1999; L. De Winter / H. T√ľrsan, Regionalist Parties in Western Europe,London 1998; O. W. Gabriel / F. Brettschneider, Die EU-Staaten im Vergleich, 2.A., Bonn 1994; O. W. Gabriel / O. Niedermeyer / R. St√∂ss, Parteiendemokratie in Deutschland, Bonn 1997; B. Gebauer, Die europ√§ischen Parteien der Mitte, Analysen und Dokumente zur Programmatik christdemokratischer und konservativer Parteien Westeuropas, Bonn 1978; G. Gill, Democracy and Post-Communism, London, New York, 2002; H. Gollwitzer, Europ√§ische Bauernparteien im 20. Jahrhundert, Stuttgart, New York 1977; S. Henig, Political Parties in the European Community, London 1979; S. Hix / C. Lord, Political Parties in the European Union, London 1997; F. Horner, Konservative und christdemokratische Parteien in Europa, Wien, M√ľnchen 1981; W. Ismayr, Die politischen Systeme Osteuropas, Opladen 2002; W. Ismayr, Die politischen Systeme Westeuropas, 2.A., Opladen 1999; V.E. McHale / S. Skowronski, Parties of Europe, Bd. 1 u. 2, London 1983; P. H. Merkl, Western European Party Systems, New York 1980; F. M√ľller-Rommel, Gr√ľne Parteien in Westeuropa, Opladen 1993; Obernd√∂rfer, D., Sozialistische und kommunistische Parteien in Westeuropa, Bd. I, Opladen 1978; W. Paterson / K. Schmitz, Sozialdemokratische Parteien in Europa, Bonn 1979; J. Raschke, Die politischen Parteien in Westeuropa, Reinbeck, 1978;H. R√ľhle / H.-J. Veen, Sozialistische und kommunistische Parteien in Westeuropa, Bd. II, Opladen 1979; D. Segert / R. St√∂ss / O. Niedermayer, Parteiensysteme in Postkommunistischen Gesellschaften Osteuropas, Opladen 1997; A. Siaroff, Comparative European Party Systems, London 2000; T. Stammen, Parteien in Europa, 2.A., M√ľnchen 1978; H.-J. Veen, Christlich-demokratische und konservative Parteien in Westeuropa, Bd. 1-5, Paderborn 1981-2000; Frank Wende, Lexikon zur Geschichte der Parteien in Europa, Stuttgart 1981; W. Woyke, Stichwort Wahlen, Opladen 1996.

External links: ACE, The Electoral Knowledge Network<; ADEPT Moldova, Association for Participatory Democracy<; Argos, Arxiu Històric Electoral<; DGIP, Belgische Verkiezingsuitslagen<; Instituto Cattaneo, Archivio Elezioni<; IPU, Parline Database<; University of Essex, Election Database Eastern Europe<; Washington University in St. Louis, Constituency-Level Elections Dataset<; Wikipedia<. Links to central election commissions, parliaments and other official sources are listed at the country figures.

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